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# Using LaTeX

## LaTeX Installation (see hints here >>)

Historically, the main issue with LaTeX papers concerned the use of Type3 fonts, which are then represented in the final PDF file as images. Most current LaTeX installations no longer use Type3 fonts, but some problems do still arise. Type 1, TrueType and OpenType fonts are more compact and also allow the text to be identified and searched. It is therefore essential that JACoW papers do not have Type3 fonts for the text. The template files include examples of how to correctly typeset most common features in a JACoW-compliant way.

The new jacow.cls class file is usable with LaTeX (together with dvips+ps2pdf or dvi2pdf), pdfLaTeX, XeLaTeX and LuaLaTeX to produce PDF files. Therefore a modern TeX system should be used (TeX Live 2013, MiKTeX2.9, proTeXt, or MacTeX). In using dvips+ps2pdf, one should use the following command-line switches:

dvips -j0 -o filename.ps filename.dvi
ps2pdf -dEmbedAllFonts=true -dPDFSETTINGS=/prepress filename.ps filename.pdf

LaTeX users on Windows Systems might find the WinEdt text editor (commercial) or TeXStudio writing environment (open access), integrated with a TeX System such as MiKTeX, a viable platform for producing their manuscript.

## Titles

The JACoW style automatically typesets the titles in uppercase. Care should be taken to ensure that specific exceptions are coded correctly, e.g., "... OPERATIONS AT 4 TeV PER BEAM...". Please see the instructions for lowercase characters using \NoCaseChange command in the Section Headings chapter.

Beware! When using "\\" to break lines in the title, you will expierence a LaTeX error "! Use of \@topnewpage doesn't match its definition. <argument> \reserved@a". This is due to the "\NoCaseChange" macro. Please use \break instead.

These use the \section macro from within the class file, which acts to capitalize each letter and to centre the heading. Should you need to enforce a lowercase character within the section heading, this can be achieved with the \NoCaseChange command, e.g. \section{SIMULATION RESULTS AT 4T\NoCaseChange{e}V}.

## Tables and Figures

Full page-width tables and figures can be obtained by using the figure* and table* environments.

Graphics can be incorporated using the \includegraphics command available in the graphicx package of LaTeX2e. This package will allow resizing and rotation of the graphics. The format for graphic files depend on the TeX engine used: pdfLaTeX and LuaTeX accept JPG, PNG and PDF, LaTeX+dvips only accepts EPS. XeLaTeX accepts (with installed drivers) PDF, JPG, PNG, BMP, PICT, TIF, PSD, MAC, SGA, TGA, GIF, EPS and PS.

When using external files please use the LaTeX command \graphicspath (e.g. \graphicspath{{./}, {figure/}, {<>}} <> specify the directory where the files reside). Remove all path information from \includegraphics[]{jp104-f1}. It is advisable not to specify the type of the graphics as the TeX engines look for all acceptable types. All this makes the source more portable.

An example of how to use the subcaption and subfigure packages with the JACoW LaTeX template is available here.

An example of how to place a double-column-wide figure at the bottom of the first page with the JACoW LaTeX template is available here.

## Lists

New dense list environments Itemize, Enumerate and Description are available with the JACoW class file. These allow a much more economical use of the space while the original versions itemize, enumerate, and description remain available.

## Subscripts and Units

ISO standards for subscripts and units guide the typesetting of quantities, variables, units, and descriptive terms in scientific and technical publications. The siunitx package is the best way to approach units in the proper way. Alternatively:

• Symbols for quantities and variables should be typeset in math italic: $E=mc^2$
• Symbols for units should be typeset in roman: $E=100\,\mathrm{GeV}$ or $E=100$~GeV, $d=3.4\,\textmu\mathrm{m}$ or $d$=3.4~\textmu m
• Symbols for descriptive superscripts and subscripts should be typeset in roman: $E_\mathrm{proton}$

## Reference Section

Papers citing 10 or more references should begin the Reference Section with \begin{bibliography}{99} in place of \begin{bibliography}{9}. The extra digit in the former ensures that reference numbers with two digits, e.g., [10], remain neatly aligned with those of a single digit, e.g. [9].

To download the LaTeX template and associated class file, go to the Templates, LaTeX section >>

Beware! Due to the style file "flushend" (from package sttools) for balancing the columns, the last line of a Reference section might be not indented or even sticking out into the left column. This has been fixed with version May 2015 of sttools. If an old version is in use this behaviour can be corrected by a hack adding "\null" before the "\end{document}".

All versions of sttools after May 2015 can be controlled using the following flags in the \documentclass statement as follows:

\documentclass[a4paper/letterpaper,
 % boxit, % check whether paper is inside correct margins
 biblatex, % biblatex is used
 keeplastbox, % flushend option: not to un-indent last line in References
 % nospread, % flushend option: do not fill with whitespace to balance columns
 % hyphens, % allow \url to hyphenate at "-" (hyphens)
 % xetex, % use XeLaTeX to process the file
 % luatex, % use LuaLaTeX to process the file
 ]{jacow}

If this does not help fixing problems with package effects, please use "\raggedend" to switch of any column balancing on the respective page.